NBS BENEFIT#48: Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation

The primary responses to climate change are mitigation and adaptation. Mitigation actions tackle the causes of climate change and adaptation actions address the impacts. Although these are separate strategies with different challenges, both are necessary to help reduce the negative effects of climate change. [1,2]

Table 1. Climate change mitigation and adaptation

Climate Change Measure Temporal Scale Spatial Scale Action Examples
Mitigation Long-term effects International Reforestation
Restoration of carbon sinks
Reduced use of fossil fuels
Adaptation Short-term effects Local Efficient use of resources
Updated bylaws, building codes
Building flood defence structures

Nature-based solutions (NBS) are effective in mitigating and adapting to climate change. NBS such as restoration of wetlands and floodplains to improve flood prevention builds climate resilience. Smaller-scale NBS include building vegetated swales, creating urban green spaces, adjusting local policies, and planting trees. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) provides extensive information of mitigation and adaptation measures that can help combat climate change now and in the future; the report can be found at: https://www.ipcc.ch/sr15/

The City of Toronto is mitigating and adapting to the effects of climate by planting a wide variety of native tree species, developing new standards for tree maintenance, protection, and enhancement, and growing a healthy urban forest, while providing many benefits to the public such as shade, temperature control, pollution reduction, and storm water management. There are an estimated 10.2 million trees covering approximately 27% of the City of Toronto.

Moving right

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